In the course of time other charitable institutions took the place of the original deaconries. Similarly they are wont to provide for the support of their respective national cardinal protectors. The person nominated must possess the qualifications of a bishop (Council of Trent, Sess. However, for the cardinal-deacons it suffices to have entered on the twenty-second year; but the new cardinal-deacon must receive deacon's orders within a year, otherwise he loses both passive and active vote (Postquam verus, § 6). Of the latter there remain only their number, seven, consecrated by antiquity and their dignity. It is customary for the governments of the same nations to contribute at the creation of such a cardinal the incident "taxes" or expenses (2832 scudi, or about 00). He must, therefore, be at least thirty years of age. Though the number of cardinal-bishops has always been seven, their particular sees have not shared the same fixity. As a rule, however, they were fewer; after the thirteenth century their number often sank considerably. These allocutions are meant for the entire Church and are therefore published in ecclesiastical organs. In the earliest times the government of the Roman Church was taken over by the presbyterium or presbyteral clergy, as we know from a letter of that body addressed to St. Abhandlungen Karl von Weizsäcker gewidmet", Tübingen, 1892, I sqq.). After the full development of the authority of the College of Cardinals, as above described, the latter took charge and exercised its power in very many ways; some canonists went so far as to maintain that during the vacancy of the Apostolic See the College of Cardinals possessed the fullness of the papal prerogative. That these bishops also received the name of is intelligible enough after what has been said. In the Middle Ages, therefore, the cardinals should have numbered fifty-three or fifty-four. Späthen, "Giraldus Cambrensis und Thomas von Evesham über die von ihnen an der Kurie geführten Prozesse" in "Neues Archiv d. Generally, however, the consistory is called only to inform the cardinals by a so-called allocution of the status of important ecclesiastico-political matters, or to make known the opinion of the pope. Harnack, "Die Briefe des römischen Klerus aus der Zeit der Sedisvacanz im Jahr 250" in "Theolog. Isti decem et octo diaconi totidem ecclesias habent infra muros civitatis. The ring is then given to each, and at the same time the "title" or church by which the new cardinal shall henceforth be known.
On the other hand, Sixtus V, by his yet valid constitutions "Postquam verus", of 3 Dec., 1586 (§ 4), and "Religiosa sanctorum", of 13 April, 1587, fixed the number of cardinals at seventy, six cardinal-bishops, fifty cardinal-priests, and fourteen cardinal-deacons, in imitation of the seventy elders of Moses, and declared null and void all nominations in excess of this number (Bullarium Rom., Turin, 1857, VIII, 810 sqq., 833 sqq.). This constitution provides that according to ancient custom (evidently closely related to the above-described interimistic administration by the archpriest, the archdeacon, and the chief of the notaries) the administration of the States of the Church shall be confided to the College of Cardinals after the following manner: the cardinal camerlengo ( are renewed according to seniority.
In the Middle Ages the ecclesiastical division of Rome into seven regions disappeared, owing to the changes in Roman topography; consequently, the ceased gradually to bear the names of their regions. According to an ancient concession the wishes of Austria, Spain, and Portugal are as far as possible respected, when there is question of raising to the cardinalate a bishop of one of these nations, known thenceforth as a crown-cardinal.
It was natural enough, therefore, that the term ), as well as to the aforementioned twenty-eight priests of the immediate papal entourage in ecclesiastical functions. Sixtus V decreed, in keeping with the wishes of the reform-councils, that, above all, it should contain doctors of theology (), and that there should be in the college at least four theologians from the mendicant orders.
1.] It became the usual designation of every priest belonging to a central or episcopal church, an ecclesiastical i.e., excellent, superior, and is so used by St. This statement takes it for granted that at the end of the eighth century the weekly service of the cardinal-bishops was already an ancient custom. Duchesne, "Le sedi episcopali nell' antico ducato di Roma", 1892, 6 sqq.) In the twelfth century the number of the cardinalitial dioceses was diminished by one, when Callistus II united Santa Rufina (Silva Candida) with Porto, so that only six remained. Innocent III was wont to hold such a consistory three times a week ("Gesta Innocentii", c. des sciences morales et politiques", 1903, 449 sqq.; M. nomination proper, of new cardinals; the publication of names reserved the giving of the cardinalitial insignia with exception of the red hat; the opening and closing of the mouth; the institution of patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops, and the nomination of such titular bishops as do not belong to the missionary territories; the transfer of bishops; the granting of the pallium to archbishops; the creation, division, and union of dioceses; the institution of abbots whose abbeys are in the gift of the Holy See; the nomination of the camerlengo and the vice-chancellor of the Roman Church; the choice and mission of cardinals as ; the conclusion of concordats, consultation on differences and conflicts between Church and State.
Peter, in the Lateran Basilica, by one of the seven cardinal-bishops in weekly service at which Mass also the "Gloria in Excelsis" should be sung. They are called for the purpose of giving the red hat to new cardinals, the solemn conclusion of canonizations, and public audiences to sovereigns and their ambassadors. As already described, it was in them that during the Middle Ages were heard and decided the numberless lawsuits and judicial matters that came before the Apostolic See. Luchaire, "Le tribunal d'Innocent III", in "Séances et travaux de l'Acad. With the transfer of their judicial attributes to the great curial offices, especially the Rota and the Roman Congregations, consistories became less frequent. The following matters are dealt with in them, and call for the counsel of the cardinals: the creation, i.e.
In 1555 an agreement was reached between Paul IV and the cardinals, whereby their number was fixed at forty, but this agreement was never carried out. The actual cardinalitial dioceses are Ostia and Velletri, Porto and Santa Rufina, Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina (Præneste), and Sabina. The law prevailing at present is based on the Constitution "In eligendis" of Pius IV (9 October, 1562) §§ 6-8 (Bullarium Rom., VII, 233 sqq.).